Publications

    Rosenberg J, Ahmad I, Weintraub R. Smallpox Eradication: A Blueprint for Future Public Health Strategy. 2022.Abstract

    In this teaching case, Dr. William Foege - the former director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention who many credit with eradicating smallpox - helps readers understand what it took to eradicate it. The case gives background information on the disease, as well as earlier immunization efforts, and describes how the social, political, and economic complexities of India impacted public health initiatives. As international endeavors to fight smallpox expanded in the 1960s, India continued to account for a disproportionate percentage of new cases. Cases remained high until a more organized and targeted strategy in the 1970s increased staffing, improved reporting, boosted vaccination rates, and expanded national and international resources. Specific national and local strategies, a coordinated and centralized decision making structure, and an understanding of and clear communication with the population were crucial to the nation’s success. The state of Bihar was the most challenging state to address, with cases remaining stubbornly high. A final campaign intensified surveillance, containment, and vaccination efforts in Bihar, and the Global Commission for the Certification of Smallpox Eradication declared India smallpox-free in 1977. The case ends with Dr. Foege wondering what lessons from smallpox eradication in India can be applied to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as future threats.

    Learning Objectives:

    This case documents the eradication of smallpox in India. A productive class discussion will allow students to appreciate the following:

    • The role of power dynamics in global health
    • The role of data and the importance of measuring the right outcome to inform program management 
    • Human resource management and its relationship to stakeholder management
    • The relationship between disease presentation and public health strategy and decision-making
    • How to build on what is known in confronting new contexts, diseases, and environments

    Exhibit 5a Decade in Which Smallpox Ceased to be Endemic by Country

    Keywords: India, public health, pandemic response, vaccine delivery, workforce management, collaboration, multilateral engagement

     

    Chao T, Patel P, Rosenberg J, Riviello R. Surgery at AIC Kijabe Hospital in Rural Kenya. Harvard Business Publishing. 2015.Abstract

    This case traces the development of surgical and anesthesia services at a rural mission hospital in Kijabe, Kenya. After providing some background of the health system in Kenya, it follows the history of AIC Kijabe Hospital from its founding in 1915 to 2013. The hospital provided high quality surgical services that were supported by many long-term missionary staff members, updated operating theaters, an intensive care unit, and a robust surgical training program. The case describes how the mission of the hospital affects its culture of care provision. It follows the executive director, Mary Muchendu, and her process in turning a mission-focused hospital into a business-focused hospital. The case ends with Muchendu weighing the tradeoffs of providing sustainable growth versus caring for the poor.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Postoperative recovery area
    Postoperative recovery area with wall oxygen, suction, and vital sign monitoring at AIC Kijabe Hospital Surgical Facilities. Source: Case Writers.

    Learning Objectives: This case documents the development of a robust surgical program at a mission hospital in rural Kenya, including human resource training and infrastructure improvement. A productive class discussion will allow students to appreciate the factors that allow high-quality surgical care to be delivered in a resource-limited setting; how a mission-driven culture affects a hospital, its sustainability, and the care it provides; what is required to provide high-quality surgical training; and the tensions and tradeoffs between sustainable growth and care for the poor.

    Supporting Content: There is a shorter version of this case titled Surgery at AIC Kijabe Hospital in Rural Kenya (Condensed Version).

    Keywords: Surgical disease, mission-based hospitals, rural surgery services, management, speciality training, global health care delivery, faith based organizations, human resources for health, anesthesia

    Rosenberg J, Cole C, May M, Weintraub R. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Harvard Business Publishing. 2012.Abstract

    This case traces the development of the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) campaign in Nyanza Province, Kenya as it transformed from the subject of a randomized clinical trial into national policy. After providing some background on the cultural, political, and scientific context surrounding male circumcision, the case traces the PEPFAR-funded implementers' advances in delivering male circumcision in Nyanza. It examines the various delivery models used in Nyanza and the evolution of the relationship between implementers as well as on the development of the national strategic plan for VMMC released in 2009. The case ends with the implementers having come together successfully for two rapid, aggressive, 30-day implementation campaigns and the head of Kenya's National AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections Control Programme wrestling with how to make such campaigns sustainable and what lessons from the campaign to pass on to the national program.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Mobile Service Delivery Model
    (A) Group counseling on male circumcision; (B) mobile circumcision counseling site; and (C) circumcision being conducted in tented delivery site. Source: Nyanza Reproductive Health Society.

    Learning Objectives: To understand how a randomized controlled trial may be translated into a large-scale public health program; how a surgical campaign was designed and implemented for rapid impact; the role of national and international collaboration in large-scale health delivery; and the ethical tradeoffs that arise in large-scale public health programs.

    Supporting Content: There is a shorter version of this case titled Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Nyanza Province, Kenya (Condensed Version).

    Keywords: Project management, AIDS, policy, supply and demand, partnerships, strategy, innovation