Rosenberg J, Ahmad I, Sharara N, Weintraub R. Improving Maternal Health by Addressing Stockouts: Integrating the Private Sector into the Public Health Supply Chain in Senegal. Harvard Business Publishing. 2021.Abstract

    This case traces the development of a series of initiatives to intended to reduce stockouts of family planning commodities in Senegal’s public health system and the eventual scale up of the redesigned supply chain to include additional commodities and its transfer of management to the government. After providing some background on the history of Senegal, including its governance and health system, the case explores early efforts to overhaul the supply chain in the country and reproductive health efforts. It then describes the Gates Foundation’s involvement and how the relationship between family planning and supply chain management came to light. The Gates Foundation, along with others, supported the launch of the Informed Push Model with Third Party Logisticians (IPM-3PL), which proved to reduce stockouts dramatically. Despite significant initial support from both government ministries and international donor agencies, as the program scaled IPM-3PL did not survive the transition to a fully government-run model, and the program was eventually discontinued in 2019 after two attempts to hand over the program to Senegal’s National Supply Pharmacy (Pharmacie Nationale d'Approvisionnement; PNA), the government agency in charge of distribution of medicines. The case ends with the director of the PNA contemplating what was next for Senegal and what she could tell others who had been so closely watching the country as an example.

    Learning Objectives:

    This case documents the need for and process to overhaul Senegal’s public health supply chain. A productive class discussion will allow students to appreciate the following:

    1. The benefits and challenges of transitioning aspects of a public health supply chain between push and pull models
    2. The trade-offs of private sector integration in public health supply chains
    3. How the management and financing structure of a public health supply chain impacts its efficacy and scalability
    4. The need for cross-sector and intragovernmental collaboration for effective supply chain management and the relationship between policy and last mile delivery

    Supply Chain Scenarios

    Keywords: supply chain management, private-public partnership, maternal health, third party logisticians, informed push model, scale up, distribution

    Park P, Bhatt A, Rhatigan J. The Academic Model for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS. Harvard Business Publishing. 2011.Abstract

    This case traces the development of the Academic Model for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS (AMPATH), and its founding organization, the Indiana University – Moi University (IU-MU) Partnership in Eldoret, Kenya. The case opens with a discussion of AMPATH’s new Home-Based Counseling and Testing Program (HCT) and its prospects for improving HIV care in Western Kenya. After providing some background on the general political, economic, and health situation in Kenya, it follows the development of the IU-MU Partnership from 1990 to 2000, its subsequent entry into HIV care services through AMPATH in 2001, and AMPATH’s rapid growth to become the largest provider of HIV services in Kenya. It then describes the organizational and operational characteristics of AMPATH and concludes with the organization wrestling with the opportunities and operational challenges that HCT presents.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    AMPATH Center in Eldoret, Kenya
    AMPATH Center in Eldoret, Kenya. Source: Case writer. (Exhibit 12 in "The Academic Model for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS " case.)

    Learning Objectives: To understand the development and design of a large scale HIV care program in a resource-limited setting and to examine how HIV treatment programs can effectively configure their services to provide maximum value to the populations they serve.

    Keywords: Service expansion, the role of academic medical centers, HIV treatment and prevention, home-based counseling and treatment

    Kleinman S, Talbot JR, Harris J, Ellner A. The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) of Uganda. Harvard Business Publishing. 2011.Abstract

    This case traces the development of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), a Ugandan non-governmental organization, from 2001 to 2006. One of the first organizations to become involved in HIV/AIDS in the late 1980s, TASO began as a meeting place for people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS, helping people to live positively. The organization provided free counselling, social support, limited medical care, community mobilizing, advocacy and networking. TASO worked alongside government facilities and trained government medical personnel in HIV counselling. After many years, TASO got a new director who brought management skills, a commitment to professionalizing the organization, and a drive to expand services. TASO began incorporating antiretroviral therapy (ART) into its offerings. The ART delivery model combined home and clinic-based care in order to maximize patient adherence. The case follows the development of the organization and scale up of services and raises the question of how to deliver care most cost effectively while maintaining its values and meeting the changing needs of the population and clients.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Training health workers to care for HIV/AIDS patients in Uganda. Credit: Sarah Kleinman; TASO
    Training health workers to care for HIV/AIDS patients in Uganda. Credit: Sarah Kleinman; TASO

    Learning Objectives: Students should learn how a healthcare delivery organization can expand and evolve over time in response to changes in external context and the needs of its clients; how public and private organizations can coordinate to meet the varied needs of a population; and the importance of leadership, management, and strategic vision in creating successful global health programs.

    Keywords: Service expansion, Home- and clinic-based care, HIV prevention and treatment.