Publications

    Rosenberg J, Weintraub R. Chasing Polio Eradication: Vaccine Development. Harvard Business Publishing. 2019.Abstract

     

    This case describes the development and rollout of bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), starting in 2007, to support the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in eliminating poliovirus. After providing background on the global polio eradication program, the case explores the policy decisions behind the development of bOPV, progression through clinical trials, licensure, and distribution of the vaccine. In particular, the case examines the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accelerating the progression through these stages. The case study ends with Steve Cochi and Roland Sutter of WHO reflecting on the successes of bOPV and its impact on the eradication program at a global level.


    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Learning objectives: A productive class discussion will allow readers to understand the importance of product development to respond rapidly to the needs of a global health initiative as well as the complexities of ensuring the engagement of stakeholders involved in vaccine development, and the potential role of the public sector in facilitating product development.

    Supporting content: The case entitled Polio Elimination in Uttar Pradesh, India may provide helpful background information.

    Keywords: randomized controlled trial, global health, public health, vaccine development, supply chain management, disease eradication, public-private partnership, collaboration, product development

     

    Brooks P, Rosenberg J, Weintraub R. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project. Harvard Business Publishing. 2016.Abstract

    This case explores what it took to map the prevalence of trachoma infection in 1,531 districts across 26 countries by directly examining 2.39 million individuals in just three years. Dozens of organizations worked together on the largest standardized mapping project in the world as part of an effort to eliminate blinding trachoma globally by the year 2020. After providing some background on trachoma, early control efforts, and the formation of a global coalition, the case explores the events, strategies, technology, and stakeholders that enabled the mapping project. It describes how the stakeholders worked together, the coordination and management mechanisms used, and the investments required. Given that disease elimination had been achieved only once before, in the case of smallpox, the case asks students to consider how the project’s leaders, Tom Millar and Anthony Solomon, could help maximize returns from trachoma mapping so that the campaign could achieve its ultimate goal of global trachoma elimination within the next five years. Were there ways in which they could leverage efforts to map this neglected tropical disease to inform other disease control programs?

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Life cycle of Trachoma
    Life Cycle of Trachoma. Source: The Carter Center/Al Granberg, International Trachoma Initiative. Available at http://www.neglecteddiseases.gov/target_diseases/trachoma/.

    Learning Objectives: A productive class discussion will allow students to appreciate what contributes to the development of a productive coalition; what it takes to collect quality data at scale; the challenges and benefits of identifying your target population for public health programming; and the tradeoffs between a targeted campaign addressing one disease and bundling efforts for multiple diseases.

    Keywords: Disease mapping, disease elimination, multi-sectoral collaboration, electronic data capture

     

    Redditt V, ole-MoiYoi K, Rodriguez W, Talbot JR, Weintraub R. Malaria Control in Zambia. Harvard Business Publishing. 2012.Abstract

    This case reviews the changes in national policy and the subsequent interventions used to reduce the incidence of malaria in Zambia from 2005 to 2010. After providing contextual information on Zambia-including historical, demographic, social, and health information-the case delves into the history of malaria control efforts worldwide and in Zambia. Though Zambia was at the forefront of malaria control-changing policy, adopting new treatment, and aggressively pursuing comprehensive malaria control efforts-in the early 2000s, by 2005 the Zambian government was still falling short of its targets. The National Malaria Control Center (NMCC) resolved to intensify its efforts by developing one national plan to improve coordination, data collection, and partner involvement, and ultimately, to scale up interventions rapidly in order to meet the national malaria targets. The new NMCC director, Dr. Elizabeth Chizema, guided the program toward success through several key interventions described in the case. With basic improvements in monitoring and evaluation, Chizema could demonstrate progress in malaria control. Nonetheless, she worried that partners might lose interest in helping Zambia given the decreasing burden even though the program still had many challenges to overcome.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Plasmodium Falciparum life cycle
    Plasmodium Falciparum life cycle. Source: United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks. Killer Number One: The Fight against Malaria. 2006; 47.

    Learning Objectives: To understand the development of a successful malaria control program over time and the components that led to its success, including the value of setting bold national goals, the merits of a health system with centralized governance and decentralized implementation, the importance of multiple coordinated interventions as opposed to a "silver bullet" approach for malaria control, and the use of data as an outcome measure, planning tool, and fundraising tool.

    Supporting Content: There is a shorter version of this case titled Malaria Control in Zambia (Condensed Version).

    Keywords: National strategy, supply chain management, malaria eradication and control, leadership

    Arnquist S, Weintraub R. HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: Building a Coordinated National Response. Harvard Business Publishing. 2011.Abstract

    This case documents Indonesia’s progress in developing a coordinated national HIV/AIDS response. Within the context of a new democratic government, a weak civil society sector, a newly decentralized and underfunded public health system, and a religiously conservative environment, the case describes how international donors financed and directed HIV/AIDS-related efforts for the first 15 years of the epidemic. In 2006 the National AIDS Commission (NAC) was restructured and awarded funding from the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID). The case documents how DFID’s flexible financing enabled the NAC to develop a single national strategy, a national monitoring and evaluation framework, and a system of local AIDS commissions. The case ends in 2009 with the NAC preparing to assume a new role as one of three Principal Recipients of the Global Fund to Fight, AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The NAC leadership must contemplate how to sustain and further the progress made in scaling up HIV prevention services while taking on new responsibilities as a Global Fund Principal Recipient.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Map of Indonesia Showing HIV Program Implementers, 2005
    Map of Indonesia Showing HIV Program Implementers, 2005. Source: Indonesia National AIDS Commission. (Exhibit 1 "HIV/AIDS in Indonesia: Building a Coordinated National Response" case.)

    Learning Objectives: To understand the impact of external financing, donor-driven agendas, and a national champion in creating a multisectoral response to HIV in a religiously conservative, lower middle-income country.

    Keywords: National strategy, sustainability, HIV prevention, flexible donor financing

    Pabo E, Rhatigan J, Ellner A, Lyon E. HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing in Hinche, Haiti. Harvard Business Publishing. 2011.Abstract

    This case examines the potential for a non-governmental organization, Zanmi Lasante/Partners in Health (ZL/PIH), to aid in improving voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services for HIV at a government hospital in Hinche, Haiti. The events of the case begin when the local government official who oversees the hospital invites ZL/PIH to work with the government to improve the hospital’s VCT services. After providing background information on the history of Haiti, on Hinche, and on the state of the current VCT program, the case describes ZL/PIH’s health care delivery model including its management systems, its use of community health workers, and its social programs. It explains how ZL/PIH adapted its mod

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Rainy season on the roads, Central Plateau, Haiti
    Rainy season on the roads, Central Plateau, Haiti; Credit: Evan Lyon

    Learning Objectives: To understand how social, economic and political factors influence health care delivery and to examine effective strategies to address these factors in the design of health care programs.

    Supporting Content: This case has a supplementary summary of history and next steps, titled Two Years in Hinche.

    Keywords: Community-based organizations, HIV prevention, government-NGO partnerships

    Phillips E, Rhatigan J. Treating Malnutrition in Haiti with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods. Harvard Business Publishing. 2011.Abstract

    This case describes the introduction of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) to treatment programs for severe acute malnutrition in children six months to five years old. It describes how RUTFs transformed malnutrition treatment in emergency and non-emergency contexts and how their use has evolved since they were introduced in 1999. The case examines RUTF policy in Haiti including the results of a pivotal pilot program and the introduction of RUTFs. The case explores the decision of the chief of Haiti’s Department of Nutrition to use RUTF for the treatment of moderately acute malnutrition in Haiti and leaves readers grappling with the question of how to implement a this policy.

    Teaching Note available through Harvard Business Publishing.

    Model Plumpy’nut Sachet
    Model Plumpy’nut Sachet. Source: http://www.lle.rcs.k12.tn.us/Teachers/guidance_page/Images/plumpybag.jpg. Accessed June 17, 2009. (Exhibit 7 from "Treating Malnutrition in Haiti with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Foods" case.)

    Learning Objectives: To understand the global public health approaches to malnutrition and its prevention, and to examine the role of ready to use therapeutic foods in malnutrition treatment and prevention programs.

    Keywords: Childhood malnutrition, health policy implementation